Curated By Nancy Baker Cahill and Debra Scacco 


Use the 4th Wall app and the map to experience the works in Defining Line. Recorded experiences (either as photos or videos) serve as an ever-expanding, collective archive of the exhibition. Please hashtag #defininglineLA or follow the project on Instagram @4thwallapp. For more help, see our Coordinates instructions.


The journey to a little known but extraordinary Elysian Park vista runs along a thin road that hugs the rim of the Elysian Reservoir. Guided by directions from 4th Wall, the free Augmented Reality (AR) app that democratizes the experience of viewing public art, visitors are greeted by a view of concrete ribbons at the simultaneous confluence of rivers and highways. By using a smartphone or tablet to launch 4th Wall and selecting “Coordinates,” Carolina Caycedo’s “Curative Mouth” is revealed on screen. The large-scale virtual artwork features fishing nets collected during the artists’ work in global communities impacted by the privatization of water.

The experience described above is at the heart of Defining Line: a groundbreaking, public art, AR exhibition exploring how lines connect, divide and define communities. Co-curated by Nancy Baker Cahill (Founder of 4th Wall) and Debra Scacco, the exhibition places powerful, site-relevant works in AR along the Los Angeles River, encouraging visitors to explore, reconsider and interact with the river, and to recognize the key role this vital line plays in shaping the history and experience of moving through Los Angeles. These public artworks were either made for or translated into AR to discuss the cultural weight and history of this 51-mile expanse – while causing zero environmental impact or harm.

Works in Defining Line

For a list of works and the best locations for viewing, please visit this page on the 4th Wall website.

Carolina Caycedo, “Curative Mouth,” (Location: 90031)

Andrea Chung’s “Filthy water cannot be washed ” uses non-native species as a metaphor for impacts of colonization affecting both land and people. (Location: 90039)

Near the site of the 1858 water wheel, where Tongva women would collect and distribute water to the first ten families in the city of Los Angeles, Tongva Elders Julia Bogany and her thirteen-year old great-granddaughter Marissa Aranda discuss the modern identity of Tongva women. (Location: 90012)

A giant boat sails on a former floodplain towards the downtown skyline, her sail a map of the urban landscape upon which she encroaches. Nova Jiang’s “Cartographer” is a harbinger of rising water levels in the face of rapidly accelerating impacts of climate change. (Location: 90012)

Debra Scacco’s “Origin and Destination Study” floats above the Spring Street Bridge, drawn from a 1954 study for a monorail following lines of the Los Angeles River. (Location: 90012)

Star Montana’s “Krystal” proudly stands above Cesar Chavez Bridge at the entrance to Boyle Heights. (Location: 90033)

Beatriz Cortez’s “T’zolkin” remains in Bowtie Project where its sculptural twin once stood, in solidarity with its partner AR work in Nuevo Laredo (Mexico), a memorial the artist created in remembrance of  Claudia Patricia Gómez González. (LA Location: 90039)

Re-imagined signs by Gala Porras-Kim tell the untold story of Gabrielino-Tongva remains, exhumed to make way for a new park at the site of the installation. (Location: 90094)

Defining Line is co-curated by Nancy Baker Cahill and Debra Scacco. Artists are Julia Bogany and Marissa Aranda, Carolina Caycedo, Andrea Chung, Beatriz Cortez, Nova Jiang, Star Montana, Gala Porres-Kim, and Debra Scacco.

LATIMES article- Defining Line